Student`s Name

Instructor Name

The Bible provides several pieces of evidence to support the argumentthat Jesus indeed resurrected. The proofs of Jesus resurrectionaccording to the Bible are the open tomb and His appearances to MaryMagdalene and the disciples. The open tomb was first witnessed by thewomen who went to visit the dead Jesus only to be informed about Hisresurrection by the Angel. The testimony of the women prompted thedisciples to visit the tomb after which they confirmed that the Jesuswas nowhere near His place of burial. Despite these Biblicalnarrations that support Jesus resurrection, some people remainunconvinced that Christ rose from the dead. Scholars have unearthedseveral proofs that reinforce the Biblical account of the death andresurrection of Jesus challenging the theories advanced by thenonbelievers. These proofs, as well as the knowledge they provide toChristians to help them safeguard their faith, will be explored inthis paper.

The first evidence of Jesus resurrection is the empty tomb. Severalpieces of evidence corroborate the Biblical story that when womenwent to visit the place of Jesus burial, the tomb was indeed empty. First, the message about Jesus resurrection was first spread in thesame city where He was buried. If the story was fictitious, thedisciples could have chosen for a discreet place to spread thegospel. Besides, if the tomb was not empty, the inhabitants ofJerusalem could have risen against the disciples if they attempted totalk about Jesus having resurrected. 1The lack of proof ofthe presence of a rebellion against the disciples’ message of Jesusresurrection shows that the locals had confirmed the empty tomb aswell. In Mathew 28:11-15, some Jews argued that the open tomb was aresult of the disciples stealing Jesus` corpse. First, this argumentsupports the presence of the empty tomb. Besides, the tomb was highlyguarded by the Roman soldiers for the disciples even to try to stealthe body. It was not even possible that the Roman soldiers could havecolluded with the disciples to author the story of Jesusresurrection. At the time, the Roman soldiers were heavily punishedfor any wrongdoing. For example, it was a norm for a soldier to beburnt alive in case a convicted criminal escaped at his watch. Assuch, no soldiers could have attempted to sleep or even collude withthe disciples as this could have amounted to him facing death. Also,it is unlikely that the disciples could have authored the story aboutJesus resurrection, even if the Roman soldiers agreed to help themsteal the corpse. This is because the disciples were ordinary peoplewithout the intellectual ability that would have aided them to authora story that has remained unchallenged for thousands of years.Besides, some individuals who do not believe in Jesus resurrectionadvance the theory that the women and the disciples must have gone tothe wrong tomb. However, this is highly unlikely because there wereRoman soldiers who was guarding the tomb. As such, it was hard forthe women and the disciples not to notice it. Additionally, the samewomen who found the empty tomb had earlier witnessed Jesus being laidto rest inside the tomb in question. This proof is pivotal to theChristians` faith because, throughout Jesus’ mission, the Jewsopposed everything that He said. Additionally, He faced muchopposition from the inhabitants of Jerusalem, especially after Heprophesied its destruction. As such, the locals could have used everymethod possible to investigate His resurrection narrative if theywere not convinced. Christians can depend on this proof as it camefrom those who opposed Jesus hence they were unlikely to lie aboutHis resurrection as this would have jeopardized their position.

The story about Jesus burial also supports His resurrection. The NewTestament talks about a man named Joseph of Arimathea as the personwho buried Jesus. However, Joseph was no ordinary person as he was amember of the Sanhedrin. The Sanhedrin was a respected council ofelders that could not have tolerated a story about one of them beingassociated with a fictitious story. However, there is no evidencethat the Sanhedrin opposed the narration of Joseph Arimatheainvolvement in Jesus burial. Also, at the time of Jesus death, therewas an old Jewish custom that required for the establishment of ashrine at the place where the bones of a holy man’s body werefound. During Jesus time, there were approximately 50 sites thatmarked the burial place of holy people. 2Thus, the absenceof such a shrine that could have marked the place where the bones ofthe decomposed body of Jesus were found is an evidence of the emptytomb. This proof is important to Christians as it provides them witha reassurance that the resurrection of Jesus is supported by theaction of individuals who could have had information about His deathplace many years after His burial. This proof tells Christians thatnobody refuted the narration of Jesus resurrection for many yearsafter His burial.

Besides, the discovery of the empty tomb by women is evidence thatthe story was not fictitious. During the time of Jesus, women werenever perceived as worthy as seen in the way they were not allowed totestify in court proceedings. The unworthiness of women’stestimonies is demonstrated by the behavior of the disciples. Afterthe disciples had heard from the women the news of Jesusresurrection, they did not believe them and had to go to the tomb toconfirm their story. To make the story believable, the individualsresponsible for spreading the news of Jesus resurrection could haveused male eye witnesses if the empty tomb’s narration wasfictitious. 3This proof is crucial for Christians becauseit came from the most unlikely witnesses. As such, Christians canhave trust in Jesus resurrection as the news about the incidence wasconveyed by people who had no reason for lying as they knew that theycould not be trusted.

Apart from the empty tomb, the other Biblical evidence for theresurrection of Jesus is His appearances after His burial. In 1Corinthians 15:3-8 Paul mentioned about a scripture that recordedJesus burial and resurrection before any disciple or apostle hadwritten anything about the incidence. The scripture narrated abouthow Jesus appeared first to Cephas, then to the twelve disciples andlastly to over 500 believers. 4 By the time the record ofJesus resurrection was being written in the scripture, the majorityof the eyewitnesses were still alive although some had died. Theexistence of the scripture before Paul’s could write anything aboutthe incident serves as an eyewitness testimony of Jesus resurrection.Either it is true that Jesus had resurrected or maybe the witnesseswere lying. It is also possible that the eyewitnesses could havebeen hallucinating. If indeed the witnesses were lying, the discipleswere privy to these lies. As such, the disciples could not haveaccepted to die in the name of Jesus whom they knew as a fraud as Hehad promised to rise from the dead on the third day after His burial.Historical books and the Bible confirm that ten out of the 12apostles died as Martyrs. Besides, the work of Paul is a proof of theresurrection of Jesus since he was not one of the 12 disciples. Inthe beginning, he was a persecutor of the early Christians. It isonly through Jesus appearance to him on his way to Damascus that hechanged his position about Christianity. Paul went ahead to enduremuch sufferings and humiliation as he refused to deny theresurrection of Jesus and eventually he was killed. If Paul was notconvinced by his encounter with Jesus, he could not have accepted thedeath penalty. The uncontested nature of the evidence cited by theApostle Paul in addition to his appeal on the 500 eyewitnesses to theresurrection of Jesus, the majority of whom were alive during histime, is a dynamic proof that Christ rose from the dead. The otherpossible theory to explain Jesus appearance to His disciples is thatprobably the latter were hallucinating. However, it is not feasiblethat all the disciples were hallucinating at the same time. Christiancan use this knowledge to defend their faith as it shows how peoplewho believed in the resurrection of Jesus because they were witnessesto the incident were willing to die to ensure the coming generationsknow the truth.

The other proof of Jesus resurrection is the spread of Christianity.The birth, death, and resurrection of Jesus played a pivotal role inthe growth of the early Christian church. 5 According tothe Bible, it is only after the resurrection of Jesus that thedisciples were able to spread the gospel past Jerusalem. As such, inits self, the resurrection of Jesus was the cornerstone ofChristianity. This means that if the resurrection was a lie, it wouldhave been impossible for the religion to spread the way it did. Christian can rely on this knowledge to support their faith byarguing that for many years, the growth of Christianity has been as aresult of people’s trust in the account of Jesus resurrection. Forapproximately two thousand years, nobody has even provided evidencethat Jesus resurrection was a made-up story. Hence, modern Christianshave to believe in the judgment of all people who have lived beforethem and who have had no ground to discredit the story about Jesusresurrection.

For many years, there have existed several theories explaining thestory about the resurrection of Jesus. On one hand, some scholarsargue that Jesus resurrected as demonstrated by the open tomb, thewomen`s message, as well as the testimonies of the disciples. On theother hand, some scholars hold that the narration about Jesusresurrection was a fictitious story created by His disciples as anattempt to cover their frustrations. People who hold this view arguethat the disciples stole Jesus body from the tomb. There is also theargument that the women, as well as the disciples, must have gone tothe wrong tomb. However, these arguments challenging the disciplesand the women’s testimonies have been discredited as more unlikelyby the evidence provided in support of the resurrection. Forinstance, it is unlikely that the women could have mistaken the tomb,yet they witnessed Jesus being laid to rest. Besides, the punishmentthat faced Roman soldiers in case they allowed a convicted criminalto escape could not have allowed them to either sleep while on dutynor collude with the disciples to steal Jesus body. Besides, thepresence of the empty tomb was confirmed by people who opposed Jesus.For example, the Sanhedrin could not have tolerated the involvementof one of their own in the story about Jesus resurrection, if indeedthe narration was fictitious. Besides, if the story was authored, theindividuals responsible could have done a better job by excludingwomen as eyewitnesses.


1Peterman, Matt. “Historical Evidence for theResurrection.” 2012. Retrieved on September 25, 2016.

2 Josh, McDowell. “Evidence for the Resurrection.”2011. Retrieved on September 25, 2016.

3 Henry, Morris. “The Ultimate Proof of Christianity.”2014. Retrieved on September 25, 2016.

4John, Ankerberg and John, Weldon. Do ResurrectionAccounts Conflict? And what Proof is There That There Jesus Rose fromthe Dead. ATRI Publishing, 2011.

5Tovia,Singer. “Did Jesus Rise from the Dead? What is the Evidence for theResurrection.” 2016. Retrieved on September 25, 2016.


Morris, Henry. “The Ultimate Proof of Christianity.” 2014.Retrieved on September 25, 2016.

Matt, Peterman. “Historical Evidence for the Resurrection.” 2012.Retrieved on September 25, 2016.

Ankerberg, John and Weldon John. Do Resurrection AccountsConflict? And what Proof is There That There Jesus Rose from theDead. ATRI Publishing, 2011.

McDowell, Josh. “Evidence for the Resurrection.” 2011. Retrievedon September 25, 2016.

Singer,Tovia. “Did Jesus Rise from the Dead? What is the Evidence for theResurrection.” 2016. Retrieved on September 25, 2016.

Student`s Name

Male-induced mental illness in the Yellow Wallpaper

The Yellow Wallpaper is a short story written by Charlotte Gilman inwhich she explores the plight of women in the 19thcentury. The short story empowers women to fight against the social,political, and economic injustices. Gilman utilizes several literarydevices, but her use of symbols has yielded more results in depictingthe women’s predicaments. The yellow wallpaper found in thebuilding where the narrator spends the summer together with herhusband is the major symbol employed by Charlotte to paint a clearpicture of what her fellow women were facing in the 19thcentury. The narrator loathes every aspect of the wallpaper as sheperceives it as partly responsible for worsening her mentalcondition. This paper will explore the various aspects of thenarrator’s life that are symbolized by the Yellow wallpaper. Thisinformation will aid the modern day learner understands therepercussions of perpetrating social, economical and politicalinjustices against a particular race or gender group. This papermaintains that the yellow wallpaper symbolizes the male-inducedinsanity women go through as a result of social injustices thattargets them.

To begin with, the narrator understands that her predicaments are asa result of the male-dominated society. However, she still hopes forthe liberation to come from men. After agonizing about how thewallpaper irritates her, the narrator still manages to say, “I wishJohn would take me away from here” (Gilman, 385). Despiteexpressing her anger and dislike for the wallpaper, the narrator hasto plead with her husband to remove it. However, John understands theliberating effect the act of removing the paper will have on thenarrator and thus does everything he can to ensure that this does nothappen. This is seen in the way he challenges the narrator not toallow the wallpaper to manipulate her. Besides, the yellow color ofthe wallpaper is a symbol of weakness. It only fades when aslow-turning sunlight shines on it. Every time, the narrator watchesthe wallpaper as the sunlight shines on its hoping it will getdestroyed. However, this does not happen as the yellow color remainsintact until the narrator decides to destroy the wallpaper herself.The slow-turning sunlight that aims at destroying the yellow color ofthe wallpaper depicts the temporal enlightenment realized by thenarrator that is prevented from achieving its goal by herself-defeating mentality.

Besides demonstrating the hopeless position held by women, the yellowwallpaper depicts the damaging effects the male-dominated society hason the women. First, the wallpaper is responsible for worsening thenarrator’s mental illness. Although there are other places wherethe narrator can visit, she cannot manage to stay away from thewallpaper. Even when her husband falls asleep, she keeps thinkingabout its patterns that she considers as committing artistic sins.This means that the narrator’s considered herself as being artisticbefore her husband decided that she cannot write anymore as heattributes her mental illness to her writings. Additionally, thewallpaper is a symbol of the women entrapped in household chores asthe narrator says that “at night in any kind of light, in twilight,candle light, lamplight, and worse of all by moonlight it becomesbar” (Gilman, 386). The only time women are free is during the daywhile their husbands are out in their workplaces. This is truebecause the narrator only writes during the day as she is afraid ofher husband.

Besides, the yellow wallpaper says that the narrator’s sense ofself is fragmented, and this is responsible her insanity. Whilelooking at the wallpaper, the narrator describes it as exposing somebars that demonstrate that she feels excluded from the rest of thecommunity. The women entrapped within the wallpaper are delusional,which is a way of the narrator saying that she feels mentally ill.She says about the design of the wallpaper, &quoton a pattern likethis, by daylight, there is like of a sequence, a defiance of law,which is a constant irritant to a normal mind” (Gilman, 385). Whileother women are free during the day as their husbands are in theirplaces of work, the narrator feels trapped within the house withnowhere to go. She identifies with the woman who crawls even duringthe daytime, and this depicts her lack of freedom. By crawling evenduring the day, the narrator wants to send a message of how herhusband has stripped off her sense of womanhood as she cannot evenperform any household chores. This is because John sister sees to itthat that the narrator does completely nothing. Consequently, thewallpaper symbolizes the life of a young woman who is struggling tostrike a balance between her duty as a mother and wife and her desireto awaken her intellectual self. Before gathering enough energy totear down the wallpaper, the narrator’s intellectual-self remains adelusion, and this is what is causing her mental illness.

In conclusion, in the short story The Yellow Wallpaper, CharlotteGilman portrays the dehumanizing life women in the 19thcentury endured at the hand of a society that only had regard formen. The plight of women in the 19th century is portrayedthrough the symbol of the yellow wallpaper. The wallpaper depicts thehelpless nature of women as the narrator pleads with her husband toremove the paper from the wall. It also symbolizes the devastatingeffects of the injustice perpetrated against women by themale-dominated society. The society stripped the narrator ofeverything that mattered to her in terms of her love for writing evenher sense of womanhood. Writing is the only way the narrator feelsliberated, but she has to do it while hiding or else she will facethe wrath of her husband.

Work Cited

Diyanni, Robert. Literature: Approaches to Fiction, Poetry, andDrama. 2nd ed. McGraw-Hill, 2008.

Student`s Name

Advertisement Analysis

A business organization uses advertisements forpromotional activities. The nature of the ads depends on the targetaudience and the expected outcomes in the long run. The techniques ofthe advert determine the objective of the sensitization effect on themarket structures (Berger np). An advertisement that includes thename of another firm is aimed at showing superiority and as such,reminding the general audience on the quality of performance andloyalty. On the other hand, a technique such as emotional appealrequires the company to target specific institutions such as familyand animals by utilizing the emotional appeal instruments (Belch &ampBelch 14). There are two major types of testimonial technique. Itcomprises of celebrity and expert. The former uses stars with thehope that it can attract several clients due to their associationwith the famous individuals on the advertisements. Experttestimonies, on the other hand, include the opinions of professionalssuch as doctors, engineers, lawyers, and economists (Pride et al.26). This paper analyzes an advertisement by Westin Hotel andResorts.

The advertisement by Westin Hotel and Resortsshows a family of three skiing on snow down a slope. Below the imagesof the three is a text that states “You Don’t Need More VacationDays. You Need Better Ones”. Further to the bottom of the advert isa brief description of the features that make Westin Hotel Stand outfrom others. They include the firm’s reinvigorated SuperfoodRxTMMenu and the heavenly beds that have been designed to ensure that onehas an amazing experience at the resort. The thesis of thisadvertisement is: Better vacation days start with Westin Hotel andResorts.

The primary needs that are facilitated by theadvertisement are leisure and relaxation. The resort focuses onholidays as its principal attraction for the visitors. By statingthat there is no need for longer vacations rather than better ones,the advert indicates that the clients can look forward to having anamazing experience at the hotel. They are promised a worthwhileexperience when they visit Westin Hotel and Resort. This will be thecase even if the duration of the stay is short.

The target audience of the advertisement is afamily. As evidenced by the image, there is a family of three namelya father, mother, and a young child at the front while snow skiing.The family seems to be happy as can be highlighted by the lady’ssmile. Unlike the parents, the child has her face fully covered andappears to be focused on the activity. Probably, they are competingto see who gets to the finish line first. Therefore, the experienceat Westin Hotel and Resorts does not only provide a competitiveenvironment for families but also integrates fun into the processthereby providing an exhilarating experience for the household.Additionally, the hotel cares for its clients as is seen in theprotective gears that are won by the families. Each member of thefamily has been provided with helmets to protect them in the case ofany eventualities. The gloves ensure that each member of thehousehold is protected from frostbite.

Westin Hotel and Resort can be considered as anexclusive joint. From the image provided, there are no other peoplein sight. This means that the location is free from interference andthe privacy of the customers is guaranteed. The fact that the familyhas the entire place to themselves is an indication of thediscreetness of the hotel and its surroundings. For a family thatneeds a gate away location that will be free of intruders, WestinHotel and Resort is the ideal choice.

The background of the image is all-white. Thesurrounding environment is peaceful as indicated by the high levelsof tranquillity in the surrounding mountains as well as the calmskies above. Blue is a representation of calmness. Therefore, theblue sky indicates that the customers will be assured of a sereneenvironment. From afar, the sun is visible. This is used to suggestthat it is a new dawn. Westin Hotel and Resort is introducing a newproduct into the market that will be unrivalled. The new beginning isbrighter and promises a better future to the hospitality industry.There is an upgraded menu as well as beds that will provideindividuals with an amazing experience away from the dangers that areassociated with the city life.

I believe that the advertisement is effective dueto the nature of the setting. The image portrays an activerelationship between the business organizations and families. Thesoothing surrounding is also attractive and provides individuals withan opportunity to get away from the robust cities and towns that theyare accustomed. The advertisement can be considered to focus on theupper-income clients who can afford vacations and go on ice skiingadventures. Finally, the exclusive nature of the location providesfamilies with time to bond and improve their relationships.

Work Cited

Berger, A. How to Analyze an Advertisement.Center for Media Literacy, 2013. Web

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Belch, George E, and Michael A. Belch.&nbspAdvertising andPromotion: An Integrated Marketing Communications Perspective. ,2015. Print.

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Pride, William M, O C. Ferrell, Bryan A. Lukas, Outi Niininen, andSharon Schembri.&nbspMarketing Principles. , 2015. Print.

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Student`s Name


Mypoints of contention in the parable of the sower are that the farmersows his seeds in a particularly wasteful way, sowing seeds in thepath and expecting them to grow! The planting of seeds is equated tothe spread of God’s word to various kinds of people. A sower is anunfortunate individual, an individual who leases the land from alandowner. The likening of God to a sower is disturbing because Godis known as the one who owns everything, but now he is being referredto as poor (Koesters).

TheIsraelites at that time are represented as the soil, the chosenpeople of God. But despite God’s all-knowing nature, he is unableto sow his seeds to fertile individuals but ends up wasting his seedson unfertile people. The soil has no authority over its propertiesbut ends up being judged by the characteristics of which it has nocontrol over (Wainwright).

Theassimilation of Isaiah’s prophecy is more troubling, “you shallindeed hear but not understand you shall indeed look but never see.Gross is the heart of this people, they will hardly hear with theirears, they have closed their eyes, lest they see their eyes and hearwith their ears and understand with their heart and be converted, andI heal them.” (The Catholic Answer Bible, Matt.13.14-15). Itaffirms the principle of the soil that it is fixed, and it cannotchange its properties.

Jesussays that “to anyone who has, more will be given and he will growrich from anyone who has not, even what he has will be taken away.”(The Catholic Answer Bible, Matt.13.12). Depicting God as beingcruel he expects people to believe in him firmly continuously, butwhen one falters, all grace will be taken from him.

Ihave always had a problem with Jesus’s parables always viewingthem as an impediment to understanding the word of God or a stumblingblock towards the attainment of the kingdom of Heaven. But Jesusexplains that whoever does not have wisdom can understand what itentails and what is expected for one to achieve it. It also depictsGods patience on me to know what his kingdom requires (Koesters).

Throughfaith in Jesus Christ, I will have the ability to understand theteachings of Christ. He says in Matthew (The Catholic Answer Bible,13.13), “but blessed are your eyes, because they see, and your earsbecause they hear.” by accepting the word of God, he can reveal thetrue meaning of his word.

Weas human beings are the soils upon which the seeds, God’s messageis cast. We make decisions concerning the message brought to us. Weare compared to different kinds of soils, and they are our situationsin life, everybody hears the word, but our situations are different.The path is those people who listen to the word of God, pay noattention to it, and the word leaves their hearts without making anyimpact. The rocky soils are the people who listen to God’s wordwith joy, but in their life, he does not apply the teachings of Godwhen trials and tribulations come upon him the word soon has nosustenance and dies within him (Van Eck).

Thepeople on thorny grounds are those who accept the word of God whollyand are willing to abide by them, but the anxieties of this worldtake over the presence of the Lord. The lure of worldly richesovertakes the person heart choking the word in their hearts thatnothing meaningful comes of it. The fertile soils are thoseindividuals that receive the word believe it and produce fruits ofobedience and righteousness (Van Eck).

Inthe parable, the seeds that go to waste are more compared to thosethat bear fruit. Seeds sown in the path, in the rocky ground, andwithin thorns do not bear fruit, all of them being a waste. Comparedto seeds planted in good soil, the bad seeds are many. I wonder if itdepicts that those who are capable of hearing, understanding andinheriting the kingdom of God are just but a handful (Van Eck).

Thesower’s parable, teaches us that Jesus came to share the word witheveryone, the easy to understand and the hardhearted. It depicts ourGod as selfless he sows his seeds to all soils, even those that areassured of bearing no fruits. Our God is generous with His word hedoes not choose only those who would hear him, but he generously sowsinto anyone willing to accept his word (Green).

Allthose types of soils represent situations in our life that weencounter at different times during our lifetime. These soils canprevent us from living in the word of God, away from His grace. Weshould always strive to be the fertile soil that produces a bountifulharvest, for it is only in that kind of ground that we can livewithin God’s plan (Green).

Theparables, in as much as they are about God’s word to his peoplealso show how Satan would utilize weakness of soils to prevent thegrowth of the word. Where the land will not bear any plants, Satan’splan is depicted as that of keeping human beings from receiving theword of God through preventing them from comprehending the wordleading to disbelief. Christians can counter Satan’s plans byhelping individuals learn, understand, and believe the word of God(Green).

Whena plant withers, it shows that the Devil has prevented people fromobtaining knowledge and testimony. He robs individuals the desire ofpursuing the word of God and gaining their testimonies. He impedestheir growth with persecution, tribulations, temptations, andaffliction. People can be assisted by encouraging them to grow inChrist by increasing their desire to know Christ (Green).

Whenpeople are alive but bear no fruits, we should work towards keepingthen alive and better their situations but removing the thorns, whichare the pursuit of worldly achievements. Satan is working towardsdirecting the strength of the soil towards other issues, and if anyfruits appear, he derails the plant so that the fruits may not mature(Green).

Plantsthat are productive and healthy the devil tries to prevent them fromenduring the troubles and temptations of this world. He attacks theirhonesty and goodness, encouraging pride because they live in Christ.Satan tries to destroy their testimony until their virtue is lostwhich will inhibit the fruition. The only way to help these people isby motivating them to seek continuous growth in Christ, to stayhumble, and be patient in their growth. And always be kind and honest(Green).

Theseed is the gospel that is intended for all people. Christ’spresent audience, the Jews is a representative sample. The parablewas being fulfilled as it was being given. It was a time when Jesuswas facing rejection from the Jews, and because the disciples were toparticipate in the sowing of the seeds, they would also need to knowabout the soils on which they would sow. The necessity was fosteredby the prevalence of grounds that cannot support plants to fruition.It can be seen in the attention given to such kinds of soils theyare three compared to one that can support a plant till it matures(Green).

Mikewas born in a Roman Catholic family, baptized at birth. When heattained the age of five, Mike was sent to catechetical classes. Atthat particular age, all he was concerned with was play, being abright boy he was allowed to partake of the sacrament of HolyEucharist at the age of nine.

Itwas at this point that Mike started taking the word of God seriouslyhe began asking himself about God’s existence and his teachings inthe Bible. He began questioning his religion if born to a family of adifferent denomination would he still be a Catholic? In his rationalmind he was able to deduce that, in all denominations and religions,they preach the existence of a spiritual deity that is superior toall beings and is independent of human influence.

WithMike`s deduction, he was able to conclude that despite differentreligions and denominations, God is singular and all religion does isprovide various ways and means of revering him. So the issue ofworship did not matter anymore to Mike, Gods teachings were his focuspoint now. He went ahead and started studying the Bible he foundthat the teachings of the Old Testament were contradictory to thoseof the New Testament. Also, most religions are similar in theteachings of the Old Testament while Christianity was the onlyreligion to embrace Jesus Christ as the son of God.

Dueto this development, Mike abandoned his pursuit of the understandingand life in God’s grace. He shut his mind to the belief in God anddecided to live in an ethical manner determined by the rules and lawsof the state, though he went to church regularly. At this point, Mikecan be equated to the path in the parable of the sower and thekingdom of God. He heard the words of God but they bore no meaning tohim, and they withered without making an impact in his life.

Inthe Roman Catholic tradition, to be confirmed one has to takeclasses. Mike began his classes when in high school in those classeshe was able to acknowledge God’s presence in his life and accepthim though he had many questions and doubts in his mind. During thistime Mike was able to understand his purpose in God’s world, butdue to his doubts, he was not able to fully understand Him.

Withthe many questions that plagued Mike, he was not able to fullyunderstand the word of God. With time his doubts and issuesovershadowed that which the Lord was trying to communicate to him andlost faith, Mike was trying to understand God on his own throughlogical deductions. Mike can be compared to the soil at the rockyland he heard the word of God, and it grew on him but could not besustained due to insufficient faith.

Duringthis period Mike was obsessed with the idea of generating a lot ofmoney to support his proclivities and enhance his popularity inschool. These factors too contributed to Mikes fall from grace. Justlike the soil at the thorny lands, he heard God’s word it grew onhim, but due to the pursuit of money and popularity, Mike’s faithfaltered and bore no fruits.

Whenin the second year in University, Mike was pursuing a particulargirl, Mary. Mike was so into her that he followed her into her groupBible studies. Mary utilized this opportunity to direct Mike to Godshe explained to him how a life without God’s guidance is in vain.She read him the scriptures to show him how God has plans for him,with Mary’s explanations and conviction, Mike was able tounderstand, and he felt that with the help of Mary, he may finallyfully understand his purpose in Gods world.

Twomonths after meeting Mary, Mike prayed his first prayer in a longtime. He repented his sins, asked for God’s deliverance, and forGod to take control of his destiny. It was the first time that Mikefelt that he had prayed he felt a lightness that he has never feltbefore. Mike felt new.

Mikewas able to start his life anew he resolved to ask for forgivenessfrom those he had hurt from when he was not by the grace of God.Surprisingly this was an easy task considering Mike never in his lifehad he ever asked anyone for forgiveness, he always found ajustification for his actions. Due to his wayward ways, Mike, and hisfamily were split, his parents could not tolerate his ungodly ways,so they cut ties with him. Mike is now in good terms with hisparents.

Inthe first year of living in faith, Mike married a Christian woman,Kate. Today Mike is a father of a little girl who he named Mary. Inaddition to owning a local profitable landscaping business, Mikededicates his Thursdays to guiding young, confused adolescentsspiritually. He teaches them who God is, His purpose in their livesand how to live in God’s grace.

Infaith, Mike was able to understand that you cannot follow God’steachings with logic. It needs the help of the Holy Spirit, as Christtold his followers “but blessed are your eyes, because they see,and your ears because they hear” (Matthew 13:16, The CatholicAnswer Bible). With logic, one will only be able to understand whatthe scriptures say, but not comprehend what they mean. Just like whenJesus talked of Isaiah’s prophecy which said, “you shall indeedhear but not understand you shall indeed look but never see” (TheCatholic Answer Bible, Matt.13.14).

Inreference to the parable of the sower and the kingdom of God, whenMike attained complete faith in God he is likened to the right soil,he heard God’s word, it grew in him and bore fruit. He now liveswithin God’s grace.


Green,Paul. &quotKingdom of God Parables in Matthew 13.&quot&nbspMar.&nbsp2013, 24&nbspSept.&nbsp2016.

Koester,Helmut. &quotThe Parables of Jesus.&quot BibleHistory Daily,15&nbspOct.&nbsp2015, 24&nbspSept.&nbsp2016.

Matthew.TheCatholic Answer Bible.Wichita, Kan.: Fireside Catholic Pub., 2002. Print.

VanEck, E. &quotThe Harvest and the Kingdom: An Interpretation of theSower (Mk 4:3b–8) as a Parable of Jesus the Galilean.&quot AOSISOpenJournals,&nbsp2014,Accessed 24&nbspSept.&nbsp2016.

Wainwright,Elaine. &quotAn ecological reading of the gospel of mark.&quot&nbspMay&nbsp2015, 24&nbspSept.&nbsp2016.

Student`s Name

The Yellow Wallpaper

The Yellow Wallpaper was written by Charlotte Perkins Gilman,and it provides a detailed account of feminist lives as well as thephysical and mental states of the women in a society that wasmassively male dominated. The short story gives a scenario in which ayoung woman in madness is cared for by the husband. According to thecaring husband, the wife needs to go on a “rest cure” followingthe delivery of their child. The room has several windows therebyproviding additional light to the chamber. It is believed that suchluminosity is necessary for the healing process that Gilman isundergoing. Even though the husband is very compassionate towards thewife, he is also misunderstanding her situation and health status.This paper will discuss the ways through which the author’sexperience with puerperal mania (post-parting depression) influencedher writing of The Yellow Wallpaper.

Dr. Mitchell considers the insanity suffered by Gilman to haveculminated from her lineage. Her ancestry is, therefore, believed tohave played a significant role in depressive illness. Some of therelatives in the family include Harriet Beecher Stowe and CatherineBeecher. The former is an abolitionist and the author of Uncle Tom’sCabin whereas the latter promotes literacy among women (Gilman 13).One conclusion that can be made from her association with suchindividuals is that the relatives may not have contributed to herillness, rather, their influence in the society provided a platformfor Gilman to further her personal philosophy. This is shown by thefact that author was appreciative of her distant relatives when shedeclared that “the Beecher urge to social service, the Beecher witand gift of words, and such small sense of art as I have&quot(Gilman, &quotLiving,&quot 6). Gilman also developed various waysof forging ahead by avoiding marriage and depending on others. Sheventured into painting and teaching in addition to acting as agoverness (Bauer 5). Later on, however, she proceeded to get marriedto another artist in 1884, and they were blessed with one child,Katherine Beecher Stetson, the following year.

The Yellow Wallpaper can be interpreted in various ways suchas feminists, Gilman’s and other individuals. The primary emphasisis on Gilman’s interpretation of the article to highlight herexperience as a woman and how this scenario contributed to her futureliterary works. In her work, Gilman explores the role of women in thetraditional society and how they face various challenges. Theserelate to restrictions on life at home in addition to the oppressionsby the male members of the community.

In The Yellow Wallpaper, she highlights insanity as a basis ofprotesting against the levels of medical and professional oppressionof women during the early times. The female members of the communityare considered to be weak and fragile, and most of the decisions madeby doctors and husbands are deemed to be in their best interests.This is highlighted by the resolution of the author’s husband tohave her moved to an upper room by arguing that this would provide a“rest cure” following the delivery of their first child.

According to Gilman and other women’s rights advocates, aconsiderable number of women were diagnosed as mentally ill due tosetbacks with regards to their roles in the society at that time. Themale-dominated society limited the areas in which the input of thewomen was required. The women were discouraged from participating invarious activities such as writing. This was out of fear that throughsuch activities, they would be able to earn an identity that wouldultimately make them defiant towards the men. For this author,however, writing provided an opportunity for her to survive throughthe challenges that women were subjected to at that time.

Her experience massively influenced the writing of The YellowWallpaper. This literary piece was directed at Dr. Mitchell tohighlight some of the errors that Gilman’s had noticed. Despite theauthor having suffered depression for a long time, the doctor couldonly prescribe “rest cure.” Some of the things that Gilman wasforbidden from coming into contact with included pencil, brush, orpen. During this period, the author was given a maximum of two hoursof mental stimulation on a daily basis. According to Dr. Mitchell,the prescription was aimed at enabling the patient to “live asdomestic life as possible.”

However, the situation got worse, and she decided to contravene theearlier agreement with the doctor. She resumed writing and used theopportunity to provide a self-account of her experience. TheYellow Wallpaper provided an exaggerated analysis of thechallenges the author had undergone as a result of misdiagnosis byDr. Mitchell. This document was in reference to her close encounterwith complete mental breakdown due to the “rest cure” that shehad been subjected to following the recommendations of the doctor. Itcan, therefore, be concluded that her experience with puerperal maniainfluenced her writing of The Yellow Wallpaper.

Works Cited

Gilman, Charlotte Perkins, &quotThe Yellow Wallpaper&quot, TheOxford Book of American Short Stories. Oxford: Oxford UniversityPress, 1992. pp154-16

Bauer, Dale M. (ed). Charlotte Perkins Gilman &quotThe YellowWallpaper&quot. Wisconsin:The University of Wisconsin Press, 1998.

Gilman, Charlotte Perkins, The Living of Charlotte Perkins Gilman.Wisconsin: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1991.

Student`s Name

The Need to Protect one’s Reputation in the Crucible

The Crucible is a play that was written by the American playwrightArthur Miller in 1953. It partially fictionalizes the Salem Witchtrials that happened between 1692 and 1693 during the colonial era inthe Massachusetts Bay. During the trials, many people were killedmost of whom were innocent. The death of the innocent people can beattributed to the widespread hysteria that engulfed the town. Mostactions by the characters in the play are driven by their fear ofdamaging their reputation if they stood by the truth. Some of thecharacters who are driven by fear in the play include Reverend Parrisand Judge Danforth. This paper will demonstrate how the need tosafeguard one’s reputation surpasses the desire to guaranteejustice for the wrongly accused in the play The Crucible.

The predicament that befalls John Proctor is a demonstration of theextent people is willing to go to protect their reputation. Proctoris portrayed as an individual with good morals as he remains bolddespite the threat of death. He is depicted as one of the few peoplewho are willing to trade their lives for what they believe in. Thoughhe knows that he is innocent, he is provided with a way of savinghimself from death and the only thing he was supposed to do is to saythat he was involved in devil worship. This was through him signing adocument declaring his involvement with the witchcraft. However, thiswould tarnish his reputation, and this makes him hesitant. Though heis coerced into confessing that he had formed a pack with the devil,he refuses to sign the confession document that would have seen himbetray his fellow townspeople whom he did not know whether they wereguilty or not. He says, “Because I am not worth the dust on thefeet of them that hang! How may I live without my name? I have givenyou my soul, leave me my name!” (Act Four). If he had signed thedocument, it would have been displayed at the church entrance. Due tothe fear of ruining his reputation, John Proctor destroys thedocument, and this resulted in his execution. However, it is evidentthat he had accepted to confess sins that he did not commit if onlyhis confession were to remain a secret. It is only when he realizesthat by signing the confession, he will be tarnishing his name thathe refuses to sign it.

Reverend Paris has built his reputation as a religious person and isnot willing to have it tarnished. At the beginning of the play, he isdepicted as willing to do everything possible to safeguard hisposition. He says to Abigail, “child-if you trafficked with spiritsin the forest, I must know it, for surely my enemies will, andthey’ll ruin me with it” (Act 1). Even when his daughter is verysick, all he can think about is his position in the town. Althoughmost of his fellow townspeople loathe his personality, they respecthim as a religious leader. Even if he does not believe that some ofthose convicted to be hanged are guilty, he cannot say this to thejudge. In Act four he says, “Rebecca Nurse is a no Bridget thatlived three years with Bishop before she married him. John Proctor isnot Isaac Ward that drank his family to ruin.&quot However, hecannot manage to speak up against the hanging of the innocent as hefears that he would be perceived as supporting witchcraft. As such,he decides to remain silent as he watches innocent people beingkilled in order to maintain his reputation as a strong believer inreligion. Besides, Reverend Parris has a special position in thecourt and which he is willing to safeguard even if it means denyingpeople from saying the truth about the unjust sentencing happening inthe town. This happens when John Proctor says that he had evidencethat would unearth the unfair nature of the court.

Apart from Reverend Parris, Judge Danforth is the other character whocompromises on his values for the sake of his reputation. At thebeginning of the play, the audience knows him as a fair judge. He hassentenced many people to die. However, along the way, he comes to therealization that some of the individuals he was supposed to declareas guilty of the crime of practicing witchcraft were indeed innocent.Despite this realization, there is nothing much he can do about it,although there were still several of the accused individuals yet tobe executed. Judge Danforth says, “On my part, reprieve or pardonmust cast doubt upon the guilt of them that died till now” (Actfour).He could not afford to exonerate the falsely accused as thiswould have ruined his reputation. By letting go the wrongly accused,he would be sending a message that he had earlier sentenced to deathsome innocent people. If the people came to learn that he was ineptin executing his duties as a judge, he would be forced to relinquishhis position, and this is something he was not willing to do. WhenMary Warren and John Proctor want to defend the young women accusedof witchcraft, Judge Danforth sees them as having a larger purpose.It is for this reason that he offer to save Elizabeth’s life ifJohn Proctor agreed to withhold his testimony. For him, thereputation of his court is more important that the truth as seen inthe way he tries to prevent Proctor from giving his testimony.

In conclusion, defending one’s honor is a major theme in the playThe Crucible by Arthur Miller. Proctor, Parris, and Judge Danforthwant to do the right thing, but some situations drive them intocompromising their values to safeguard their name and reputations.For example, Reverend Parris views every testimony aimed at revealingthe truth as a threat to his position at the church and the court. Onhis part, Proctor cannot afford to lie in order to save his life asthis means that his reputation would be ruined. This is because theconfession document would be placed on the entrance of the church. Onthe other hand, Judge Danforth cannot afford to pardon Proctor asthis would convey the message that he had wrongly sentenced someindividuals to death. This would trigger a discussion on thepossibility of the innocence of some of the individuals who hadalready been sentenced to death for the crime of practicingwitchcraft.

Work Cited

Miller, Arthur. The Crucible. 1953.

Student`s Name

PoliticalReality and Its Effects on Personal Lives as expressed in ‘a Girlcalled Apple` and ‘Clarisa`

Undoubtedly,the political reality, which is the role of women and how the societyviews and expects them to be, has had significant effects on thepersonal lives of both Apple and Clarisa in ‘A Girl Called Apple’and ‘Clarisa’ respectively. The relationship with their familiesand the outside world best expresses this phenomenon, especiallybecause both of the characters seem to deviate from the normalsocietal expectations as seen when Apple refuses to get married upuntil she makes the decision for herself at an age when most of thewomen of her age usually got married. It is also expressed inClarisa’s situation when she gets two children out of wedlock toavoid getting any more abnormal children with her husband. The factthat she considers it a sin and referring to it as “one that wasvery grave” shows that it was against what was expected of amarried woman in that particular society. This paper will, therefore,assess the impacts of such political realities in the lives of thetwo characters as expressed by the authors.

Impactson Decision-making by Women in the Society

Bothstories give a reflection of the weight that a woman’s decision hason matters that relate to her personal well-being, such as decisionsthat will directly affect her personal life, especially in amarriage. Little or no consideration is given to their opinions ordesires when it comes to choosing the person and the time they wouldwant to be married. At the initial stages, Apple tells her fatherthat indeed she wants to get married and that she doesn’t want theflag. However, the story poses a rhetorical question on thepossibility of Apple being married by any other means except byraising the flag. It is unheard of, and no consideration will begiven to her thoughts about the raising of the flag.

Evidently,in Clarisa`s story, the main reason she is married to the judge isnot that he was the first person to approach her, but particularly,because her parents think that the man would be the best possiblematch for their daughter. Also, the story proves this fact by furtherstating that she thinks of the marriage to the judge as a trade forher comfortable life that she enjoyed at her parent’s home with herhusband’s life characterized by avarice and vulgarity, which sheconsiders to have no better fate for her. The matter goes to the coreof both characters personal life as the failure to express theirdesires practically compromises on their happiness andself-satisfaction.

Appleis constantly thinking of how the society will think about or judgeher based on her decisions while Clarisa is forced to raise thechildren on her own as opposed to receiving help from her husband,who spends most of his time locked up in his room. Women are deemedto be inferior, and their voices are treated as irrelevant, and,therefore, their roles in the society is primarily submissive.

Impactson Self-worth and Family Dynamics

Clarisaeventually decides that she will have two more children. Although sheconsiders her abnormal children as ‘pure souls immune to evil, sheis concerned about their well-beings, and possibly their lives in theevent she is not around to provide or care for them. She, therefore,gets two more male children whom she believes will help her take careof their brother and sister. Apple considers her female colleagues as&quotcrazy stupid women&quot whenever she walks past their homesand finds flags hoisted on their houses.

Interestingly,both of the characters self-worth is affected because they look downupon themselves even though their actions are quite justifiable.Apple wants to get married but not at the society’s time, when shefeels comfortable with it. Similarly, Clarisa wants someone to helpher take care of her two abnormal children. Their self-worth,however, is affected as in the case of Apple. She begins to ‘knowdepression’. She is disturbed by the feeling that she is not yetmarried yet she has children. The feeling is self-diminishing, and ittends to affect the family dynamism as previously she workeddiligently but now finds herself “grumbling about her father anddoing the house works.&quot By hoisting the flag herself, Appleindicates that the existing political reality interferes with herpersonal life by diminishing her self-worth, both in her eyes andthat of the society. She considers herself as &quotmutton or olddates for sale&quot and that &quotthey will feel pity for her asshe was no longer sellable merchandise.&quot

Onthe other hand, Clarisa believes that, indeed, there is a heavenwhere the righteous shall all go to. In fact, when her friendquestions on whether the ‘heaven’ exists, she strongly confirmsthat it does. However, she is not certain that she will be allowed toenter into ‘heaven’. She fears that her sins may not allow him togo to the ‘holly place’. Clarisa believes that there are strictsconditions for one to be allowed to enter into ‘heaven’, and thatonly the ‘holly ones’ shall be allowed in. Her major sin is aboutthe children she sired out of the wedlock with a wealthy politician.She regards herself as a sinner, therefore, diminishing herself-worth regarding righteousness and seeing heaven. In her society,it is believed that the woman bears the responsibility when she failsto please the husband, and he seeks the same from another woman, butwhen the woman does the same, she bears the burden on her own. Also,it is important to note that the family dynamics in Clarisa`ssituation have changed, and the effect is that it pulls the familyfurther apart. The father who locks himself away in his room fails tosupport and help take care of the abnormal children.


Theresults of the intersection between political reality and privatelife do not necessarily have to bring out a negative impact. Bothstories prove that at times the intersection is positive as seen inClarisa’s case where she turns out to be strong woman loved andadmired by many people. Despite being poor, she had managed tosupport her four children without any assistance from her husband,who decided to abandon at the time of need. The Apple’s story alsoshows that she made the final decision on her own as compared to mostgirls or women in her society who did not express their voices or tryto challenge the system. Although her sadness seems like the ‘blacksickness’ has hit her, the hoisting of the flag representsself-awareness.

Student`s Name


DavidHatcher Childress is an author and his work on the Mogollon Monsteris a great piece of an archeological cover-up that tries to explainthe existence of the Bigfoot animal of Arizona. According to thosewho have had an encounter with the creature, it is a hairy bipedalanimal. It stands almost seven feet tall with large red eyes. It hasa skunk smell just like other Bigfoot beasts (Susan, 2012). Hatcherdoes not give final remarks about whether the creature is real orjust a misguided formulation of the human mind.

Accordingto me, the fact that present day Native Americans still encounter themonster and keep reporting to the police says something about thelikelihood of its existence. For years now, sightings have persisted,but none persuades skeptics that such a giant nocturnal creaturecould escape notice for so long. Scientists don’t believe themonster exists, and that’s why there has been little or no researchgoing on about the monster ever since the first report of it beingseen in 1903 was received (Susan, 2012). The reluctance behindscientific research could be because the photos imagined to be of theMogollon Monster are poorly defined and too blurry to act as aconviction to the scientific community lack of which is useless.

Itis possible that the Mogollon Monster is inhabiting the thick forestof Arizona but then again finding substantial indubitable evidencewill take some serious and sustained research. Many theories andreports surround the Mogollon Monster and its high time researcherslook into it and relieve the Native Americans of the mysterysurrounding the creature instead of overlooking the matter. I thinkthe Mogollon Monster is real.


SusanFarnsworth, TheMogollon Monster, Arizona’s Bigfoot. 2012

Student`s Name


Culturalevolution is the concept that changes in culture, that is, socialbeliefs, customs, knowledge, attitudes, language, and skills can bedescribed as a Darwinian evolution similar but not identical togenetic evolution (Seltzer, Johnson, and Amira). Diamond argues thatdifferences in geography and ecology of places, allows theinhabitants to develop different cultures that evolve with time. Inhis example of Eurasia, it’s positioning as a more latitudinouscontinent fertile with crop and animals allowed for the culture todevelop in the sense that the inhabitants had enough food to stay atone place farming. This allowed for people to evolve into a complexsociety of, resistance to germs, tools, weapons, and writing systems.While in the Americas where the climate was varying withoutdomesticated animals or favorable environment to farm, causing theinhabitants to be nomadic, causing their culture to be static.Cultural norms arise as direct responses to features of ecology, orbecause of learning from other people (Heine 66). I think theAmerican culture of freedom and open-mindedness is influenced by thefact that America is highly industrialized attracting a lot ofvarious cultures. This confluence of cultures brings aboutaccommodation and a wider perspective.

Evokedculture is the notion that all persons have certain behavioralaspects encoded biologically potentially accessible to them, theseideas are engaged under appropriate conditions (Heine 66).Transmitted culture is mainly obtained by observation it begins at aparticular geographical area. With interactions with many people, theculture travel with people when they move (Heine 68). The notion oflearning culture from interactions seems more feasible than havingcharacter encoded only for it to manifest itself when needed.

Heinedraws a parallel between ecological and biological evolution. Hedepicts the process of natural selection he is of the idea that justlike a superior gene survives in the biological scenario, thesuperior idea survives in the ecological scene. Sexual selectionensures those who are healthy survive in the natural scene throughgenerations of procreation, on the ecological scene, a preferablecultural idea passes horizontally from a person to another (Heine75). Heine does not sufficiently explain the parallelism betweenbiological and cultural evolution. In his equation of sexualselection of ideas, the evolution of ideas is not clearly defined.The strength of the presented evidence is average Heine’spresentation only highlights the similarity but does not go deep intothe workings of cultural evolution.

Ideasreplicate by the use of memes these are the smallest units ofcultural information. They include tunes, catch-phrases, theories,table manners, and ways of doing things. They are instructions onappropriate behavior stored in our brains, objects or written textsand are replicated through communication and imitation (Heine 76).Suggesting that ideas replicates makes no sense, this is because whenideas are transmitted people do not usually act as the ideas suggestbut they adopt the ideas to the situations at hand, thus the basis ofthe notion is constant, but the ideas itself has grown. I think thebetter way to explain the spread of ideas is that they adapt to newsituations.

Dynamicsocial impact theory is of the view that culture is influenced by howindividuals interact leading to common perspective (Heine 80),defined by different phenomena: clustering, correlation,consolidation, and continued diversity (Seltzer, Johnson, and Amira).Culture can be created and changed through everyday communication. Ithink this is the best way of explaining the origin of culture for itis how people act and relate to each other and the surroundings.

Amicro-culture that has developed amongst my friends and me is that ofhealthy eating and living. We always take home made food, no fastfoods. This has enabled us to choose what we eat and at whatproportions. We also include weekly visits to the gym to make sure weexercise. When a group adopts a culture and the relationship amongstthem is robust and deep, the culture will flourish. Within our group,there are those who wanted to be vegetarians, but since they sharednothing concrete in common, the practice stopped as soon as itstarted. This was contributed to by the fact that they were not sureit was what they wanted to do.

Minimallycounter-intuitive ideas are about the evidence of cultural evolutionin religions and myths, and they can be considered as cultural ideas.It means ideas that are surprisingly unnatural in that they go beyondour expectations without being too strange. In the Bible stories,most of the stories are normal, coupled with “counterintuitive”events such as a virgin giving birth. Heine proposes that these kindsof narratives, ordinary intuitive events sprinkled with an occasionalcounterintuitive idea are most likely to persist in our memories andbe retold (Heine 84). An example in national politics is when DonaldTrump a presidential candidate called for a ban on all Muslims toAmerica in a press release (Diamond).

Ethnocentrismis evident in Heine’s arguments concerning cultural evolution allhis arguments are based on culture being influenced by geographicallocations. Though his arguments are valid, he should have analyzedother determinants of cultural evolution. His judgments andassumptions too are value-laden he does not question his views. Heexplains them as if they are the absolute truth, and fails to offerother views that may contradict his but still be viable.


Diamond,Jeremy. &quotDonald Trump: Ban all Muslim travel to U.S.&quot CNNpolitics, 8&nbspDec.&nbsp2015. Web. 19&nbspSept.&nbsp2016.

Heine,Stephen&nbspJ. &quotCultural Evolution.&quot CulturalPsychology: Third International Student Editio.WW Norton &amp Company, 2015.,&nbsp2015. Print.

Seltzer,Nicholas&nbspA., April&nbspA. Johnson, and Karyn&nbspA. Amira.&quotRevisiting Dynamic Social Impact Theory: Extensions andApplications for Political Science.&quot InternationalJournal of Politics, Culture, and Society26.4&nbsp(2013): n. pag. Web. 17&nbspSept.&nbsp2016.

Student`s Name



  1. Personal details

  2. Heraclitus as “the obscure” philosopher

  3. Heraclitus as the weeping philosopher

  4. Influence

  5. Death

  1. Interpretation of logos

  1. Logos as common

  2. Logos as the universal principle of the interconnectedness of all things.

  1. The doctrine of universal flux

  1. Everything in the universe is in constant flux.

  2. Explanation of the quote &quotone cannot step into the same river twice.&quot

  3. Examples to demonstrate the doctrine.

  1. The doctrine of unity of opposites

  1. Logos as manifested by the existing connection between opposites.

  2. The universe as a coherent system

  3. How the more things drift apart, the closer they become

  4. Examples to demonstrate the doctrine.

  1. The role of fire in his cosmology

  1. Fire as the most important material for bringing all things in the universe together.

  2. How fire brings order to the world.

  1. His conception of the soul and God

  1. The soul as part of nature

  2. The soul as limitless (immortal)

  3. The divine unity behind cosmos(the existence of God)

  1. Conclusion

Heraclitus lived between 535 and 475 BC. He was a pre-Socratic Greekphilosopher from Ephesus Ionia. Little is published about hiseducation and early life. However, from the work of his successors,Heraclitus considered himself as a self-taught as well as the founderof wisdom. Nothing that Heraclitus wrote still lives hence muchabout him was reported by one of his follower Diogenes Laertius.According to Diogenes, Heraclitus hailed from an aristocratic familythat occupied the town of Efes in the present day Turkey. Little canbe confirmed about Heraclitus life, and this is the reason a reviewof literature about him is characterized by widespread uncertainty.For example, while some scholars argue that his father’s name wasBlosom, others say that he was Herakon’s son (Graham).

Heraclitus was referred to as “the Obscure” philosopher, whichmeans that most of his works were not easily understandable such thatonly a selected few attempted to read it. It is for this reason thatDiogenes referred to him as the “Riddler” to mean that his workhad hidden meaning. Heraclitus was also referred to as the weepingphilosopher. It is speculated that he suffered from depression whichwas associated with his lonely life as he deliberately chose to stayaway from the people as much as he could. It is believed that hisdepression is the reason he never completed most of his writing(Graham).

Some of the renowned philosophers such as Aristotle, Plato, Stoics,and George Hegel claimed that they were influenced by the work ofHeraclitus. Diogenes Laertius, whose account of Heraclitus is themost widely read, reported that the philosopher spent his last dayson earth wandering in the mountains where he ate only herbs andgrass. Consequently, he suffered from impaired vision and dropsy. He,however, tried to heal his vision problem by performing anidiosyncratic treatment on his eyes. He did this by applying aliniment of cow manure after which he basked in the sun for a while.He was later found dead by people going to the market.

Heraclitus held that everything comes to pass in adherence to logos.Although he viewed logos as common, he argued that human beings neverseemed to understand it. Heraclitus went ahead to claim that althoughLogos is common, the majority of individuals act as if they hold someprivate understanding of it (Graham). Logos refers to the universaldoctrine through which all living and non-living things areinterrelated, and all natural phenomena happen. As such, it isimpossible to gain knowledge about a certain concept if one does notunderstand how it relates to other things in the universe.

According to Heraclitus, everything in the universe is in constantflux. According to Graham, Heraclitus argued that “nothing is inthe universe because everything is in the process of becomingsomething else.” On this note, Heraclitus is quoted as saying thatone cannot step into the same river twice. By saying this, Heraclitusmeant that while the river does not change over time, the waters init does. Similarly, the same road that takes some people out of townis the same that brings others in.

One crucial manifestation of logos according to the Heraclitus is theunderlying interrelatedness between opposites. A good example todemonstrate Heraclitus doctrine of the unity of opposite is theconcept of disease and health. When a person is not suffering fromany disease, he/she is considered to be healthy. Other examples thatprovide a clear picture of the Heraclitus principle of the unity ofthe opposites include pain and pleasure, cold and health, and eviland good. Each if this concept is the opposite of the other in thesame category. Instead of viewing the world as chaotic, Heraclitusperceived the universe as a coherent system. The coherency comesabout as a change in one aspect causes a similar movement on theopposite side. Despite the change being witnessed in separatedirections, there exist unseen connections between all things suchthat the more they move apart from one another, the closer theybecome (Baloyannis11). For example, the day sends away the darknesscaused by the night as the latter welcomes the former.

Heraclitus viewed fire as the most crucial material that brings allthings together. According to him, “the world order is anever-living kindling in measures and being extinguished in measures”(Graham). To him, even smoke and flame are manifestations of fire.Fire brings order to the world by turning to ocean as rain. In turn,part of the ocean joins the earth. What follows this is that equalamounts of the sea and the earth returns to the respective fire andsea simultaneously (Ristić-Gorgiev57). This process creates a dynamic equilibrium that isresponsible for maintaining order in the universe. For example, whilethe sun consumes the earth the whole remains.

Heraclitus perceived the soul as part of nature. AccordingHeraclitus, &quotTo souls it is death to become water, to waterdeath to become earth, but from earth, water is born, and from watersoul&quot (Graham). As such, he was of the view that the soul comesfrom other things just like fire. He viewed the soul as limitlesswhich means that it is capable of surviving even death. Heraclitusbelieved in the existence of God who is responsible for the unity ofthe cosmos. Heraclitus is quoted saying, “God is war peace, daynight, and satiety hunger” (Graham). For him, the world is eitherthe God or it is a depiction of His activity (Ristić-Gorgiev61). The fire is synonymous with God as it isresponsible for causing constant changes in the world.

In conclusion, Heraclitus intentionally made his work understandableonly to a few intellectuals. Additionally, none of his books hassurvived, hence most of what is known about him was reported byDiagonese. Heraclitus differed from his predecessors as he arguedthat all the things are the same, in some sense. For him, whileopposites are crucial for life a system of law-like connection existsto bring harmony in the world and these interchanges of elements ismanifested by fire. Consequently, as opposed to his predecessors whohad reached a consensus that the world was constantly changingHeraclitus argued that the change involving the components of theuniverse is an ongoing process, and it is symbolized by fire.

Work cited

Baloyannis,Stavros j. &quotThe philosophy of Heraclitus today.&quotEncephalos&nbsp50(2013): 1-21.

Graham, Daniel. &quotHeraclitus.&quot The Internet Encyclopedia ofPhilosophy. 2014. Web.

Ristić-Gorgiev,Slađana. &quotThe relationship between the soul and the logos inHeraclitus`s fragments.&quot&nbspfactaUniversitatis-Series Philosophy, Sociology, Psychology, andHistory&nbsp01(2009): 55-60.

Student`s name

Maximizing ticket sales through marketing

Marketing isaimed at increasing the awareness of an organization, its productsand services. The sales of an organization are relatively low whenthere is inadequate awareness of its products in the market. Theproduct features may prompt customers to purchase it and therefore,they should be informed about them. A senior women professional golftournament in Winter Haven aims at maximizing ticket sales. Marketingcan help the tournament achieve this goal. This paper discusses theinformation required during marketing decision-making process, thetarget population, and promotion and pricing strategies.

Data fordecision-making

Before makingmarketing decisions, planners need certain information. The rightinformation is key to the success of every strategy. Marketingdecision-making process requires data on the target population,external and internal environmental factors that influence the salesof a product (Silver et al. 5). The data about the targetpopulation is important since it helps decision makers to understandthe size of the target market, their preferences and location. Suchinformation enhances the formulation a suitable marketing strategyand efficiency in achieving the organizational goal. Targetpopulation data is important when pricing the tickets. There areenvironmental factors that need to be considered when makingmarketing decisions. Data on the internal environment provides thedecision makers with insights about the value chain associated withthe event. Insights on the external environment are important inidentifying the political, cultural, economic and legal factors thatarea likely to influence the formulation and implementation of themarketing strategies.

Target market

The target marketof golf tournament is composed of individuals from various agegroups. Ticket sales will target individuals above the age ofeighteen. Both women and men are will be targeted. Junior golfers of5 years and above will also be accommodated.

Uniqueness of the product

Attractiveness isimportant in convincing potential spectators to buy the tickets. Forthis tournament, different types of tickets will be designed based onthe service package that the audience can accommodate. Designingtickets which is inclusive of accommodation services can helps toattract potential audience who come from a distant place. Security ofthe spectators and their vehicles will be guaranteed and covered inthe tickets. The tickets are designed to cater for the various socialclasses.

Pricing strategy

Pricing strategyenables event planners to come up with the right price for thetickets. The right price will motivate the potential spectators tobuy the tickets. Consumers prefer the product in which they findvalue. Since this is the element that generates revenue in amarketing strategy, the tournament will give it a lot ofconsideration (Masterman, 260). Before adopting a pricing strategy,the tournament planners will set pricing objectives. Psychologypricing strategies will be used to encourage potential consumers topurchase the tickets. Advanced tickets will have lower price thanthose bought at the gate. Economic pricing strategy will also beincorporated. It will enable the tournament planners reduce the costassociated with organizing the event and marketing it. The costshould not be more than the project revenue. Pricing of the ticketswill be based on the market conditions in order to avoid theconsequences of the extremes.

Promotion strategy

In order to increase the awareness of the tournament to the targetaudience, promotion is necessary. Product promotion strategies willbe adopted based on their appropriateness in reaching every singlespectator in the target population (Albarran 213). Various strategieswill be employed based on the consumer behaviors. Majority ofindividuals nowadays have access to Internet and social media. Theyspend most of their time on social media. Such individuals can bereached through social media marketing. The tournament Facebook pagewill be used through creation of posts that will be shared in variouspages where the target audience makes frequent visits. Other socialmedia sites such as Twitter and Pinterest will also be used. Paidoffline advertisement will be employed to capture the individualswhose access to internet is limited. Radio advertisement iseconomical and can be used to reach thousands of listeners. Posterswill be placed at strategic locations. These strategies will ensurethat optimum awareness is achieved. The channels will be used toinform the potential and existing customers about the location theycan get advanced tickets. News updates will be done through the samechannels.


Marketingstrategy is one of the important aspects of increasing the sales ofan organization. By providing adequate marketing data, the eventplanners will have a wide range of options from which they can selecta suitable one. Uniqueness of the services at the tournament willhelp to attract more people to buy the tickets. The value that thespectator will experience is influenced by services offered withrespect to their money. Promotion will increase the awareness of thetournament and provides reasons for attending the event.

Work cited

Albarran Alan. Management of Electronic and Digital Media. CengageLearning, 2016. Internet source

Masterman Guy, Strategic Sports Event Management: Third Edition,Routledge, 2014. Internet source

Silver Lawrence, Stevens Robert, Wrenn Bruce and David Loudon. TheEssentials of Marketing Research, Routledge, 2013. Internetsource

Student`s Name



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