Professor`s Name

Technology-EnabledCommunication Distract Students

Thecontemporary world is witnessing an evolution of technologicalsolutions that keep changing the way people interact, communicate,and share ideas. Access to the World Wide Web and social media isvery high among Americans since 93 percent use computers, multimediadevices, and personal cell phones (Holladay 4). Acquisition ofpersonal devices has increased access to information. However,constant connection to virtual activities results in detrimentalbehaviors like cyberbullying that infringes on privacy rights,isolation from communities, and distractions from reality. The essayargues that technology-enabled communication is intrusive as itdistracts students from participating in real-time classroom eventsand that leads to poor academic performance.

Studentsexposed to cyberbulling experience anxiety that affects their levelof concentration and reduces academic performance. Cyberbullying iseither texting a mean message or sending a derogatory image throughthe electronic media. Technology-enabled communications have createdan equal platform for accessing online interactions. Today, manystudent own devices to access interactive websites that provideanonymous tools they use to victimize unsuspecting peers. Holladaystates that 66 percent of youth own personal cell phones and 76% usemultimedia devices to text, chat, and share ideas (Holladay 4).Moreover, at least every child has a Facebook, Twitter, or any otherinteractive website profile for social interactions. Hence, manychildren are exposed to derogatory comments and images shared online.A victim is likely to develop stress and emotional anxiety afterexperiencing an episode of online harassment. Phoebe is an example ofan adolescent who would not handle stress associated with receivingmultiple disparaging messages from schoolmates and she decided to endher life (Holladay 2). Besides, cyberbulling takes placeinstantaneously with many peers’ using mean language. Holladayclaims that 37% of students are perpetrators whereas only 18% ofparents know that their children engage in cyberbullying (Holladay6). Perpetrators exploit anonymous identity to hide cyberbullyingactivities, but a target is likely to undergo extreme anxiety thatdistracts their academic performance. Equally, perpetrators who arehooked to cyberbulling waste time online replying or reading newposts. Hence, they lose time and reduce their academic performance.Children should be informed of the repercussions of cyberbullyingsince the Library of Congress started a program of archiving allsocial media messages for future reference in determining personalbehavior.

Virtualinteractions hinder students from learning socializing skills, asituation that undermines their capacity to communicate effectivelyin and outside of their classroom. Face-to-face communication buildsbetter interpersonal relationships and guarantees trust (Turkle 3). Aphysical attachment grows through constant face-to-face interactionsas students learn to accommodate their differences. The bond thatgrows after holding face-to-face communication instills empathicfeelings that inhibit expression of antisocial remarks that may causeconflicts. Teachers complain that students prefer to zone out intoseparate online groups where they find meaning for theirrelationships, instead of engaging each other within a physicalenvironment like a classroom (Turkle 1). The failure to buildlong-lasting physical attachment through conversations isolates youthand undermines their communication skills. Turkle argues that youthstop valuing face-to-face relationships because of being hooked up toonline virtual communications (1). Communication is suffering inschools since everyone is trying to perform multiple tasks such asparticipating in social media arguments while at the same timelearning. The unnecessary huge physical distance between students inthe classroom prohibits sharing of values that are essential forbuilding a classroom community. Lack of direct communication amongstudents undermines their capacity to share classroom ideas, which ineffect derail their learning outcomes. Furthermore, modern studentslack soft communications skills because they avoid participating inface-to-face conversations with each other.

Teamworkamong student has drastically reduced in schools since students nolonger value interpersonal interactions that would encourage exchangeof ideas and sharing of knowledge. Contemporary teachers find itdifficult to convince students to stop undermining people aroundthem, as they get addicted to virtual relationships (Turkle 3).Face-to-face interactions develop slowly and require patience for ameaningful interpersonal exchange to happen. However, the kind ofspeed associated with digital texting molds youth to value thefastest answers, which lack creativity or self-reflection. Talkingwithout much self-reflection about differences in personality orbackground is weakening friendship. Thus, students find it hard towork in groups. An individual hurt by an impulsive comment wouldrather work alone than focusing on developing strong ties with theteammates. Moreover, students using technology-enabled communicationprefer virtual chatting that allows them to engage in many tasks atonce, but they avoid a real conversation that would guaranteesbonding to develop teamwork.

Consistentmultitasking is an intrusive activity associated with the usage ofmultimedia devices and the trend is diminishing academic achievementamong youth and children in schools. A research shows thatmultitasking reduces the depth of concentration and decreasesperformance output. Simpson claims that multitasking undermines thelevel of concentration and distracts the attention (470). Studentstrying to switch between learning and texting on social media areusually distracted in class. Technology-enabled communications allowstudents to reply to messages and contribute to social mediadiscussions even while in their classrooms. Intrusive activities fromsocial media and other interactive sites remains the chief cause ofdistraction in classrooms, which hinders students from learningwithout divided attention (Turkle 1). Seemingly, fragmentedconsciousness distracts students from participating fully in anycurrent classroom activity. Students tend to overuse multimediadevices during lessons instead of listening to a class lecture.Hence, learners report low grades because of valuing their electroniccommunication and chats to grasping knowledge from a teacher. Simpsonstates that professors have observed a decreased academic performanceof students attributed to distractions from cellphone calls, onlinechats, and social media activities (469). Students engaging in taskssimultaneously pay little attention to classroom activities. Hence,youth who are preoccupied with screens while in the classroomundermine their performance. Apparently, students are always usingtheir multimedia devises to text and catch up on social news andtrends.

Inconclusion, the advent of technology-enabled communication hasreduced academic performance of students in most schools. Besidesopening up interactive websites that support virtual communities andcommunication, online activities cause cyberbullying, which is aconsequence of using multiple anonymous online identities. Studentsaffected by cyberbulling experience anxiety that derail theircapacity to pay attention to classroom matters and that diminishtheir academic performance. Online interactions hinder thedevelopment of socializing and communication skills among students,as they have no time to engage in face-to-face conversations.Furthermore, schools report poor teamwork among students who areunwilling to engage directly to share ideas and knowledge. Studentseasily give in to multitasking when using multimedia devices withoutfocusing on academic goals. Technology-enabled communicationsdistracts students from paying attention to their academic grades andencourage virtual relationships that reduce interpersonalsocialization to share ideas.


Holladay,Jennifer. “Cyberbullying.” TeachingTolerance,no. 38, 2010.

Simpson,Joanne Cavabaugh. “Multitasking state of mind.” JohnHopkins Magazine,vol. 58, no. 4, 2006.

Turkle,Shelly. “The fight from conversation.” TheNew York Time,21 Apr. 2012.

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TheChristian culture’s artworks represent the achievement of artisticexpression of liturgy from a dramatic point of view that variesaccording to different artistic styles. Naturalism describes theconcept of representing ideas in accurate details that appreciatetheir natural properties, but with reduced spiritual explanations. Onthe other hand, supernaturalism explains ideas from the perspectiveof the belief that beings from different universes interact in waysthat alter the physical world. Thus, all the supernatural artworkfeatures angels, forces, God, miracles, and faeries. Contrastingly,naturalistic artworks epitomize humanistic nature and appreciate thenatural proportions when expressing ideas. Thus, naturalism applies athree-dimensional approach and imitates the natural objects to create3-dimensional and deep relief carvings (Melville 10). On the otherhand, supernatural art depends on a two-dimensional depiction ofconcepts that use incising and low-relief figurines. Christian reliefand sculptures represent the 500-1200 era of adoptingsuper-naturalism and the late 1200-1400 return to naturalism.

Naturalismdeveloped as the religious attitudes changed with the emergence ofart and drama that merged with liturgy to communicate the sacramentalrites. The early 900 AD is a time when artists developed intricateways of expressing Christian religion by using liturgy symbols.Supernatural art developed during the early medieval period in whichBiblical stories were illustrated in low and high relief sculptures.Besides depicting the celestial lifestyle that recollected evidencefrom the Holy Scriptures, supernaturalism sought to discuss churchmatters exclusively without paying attention to human issues. Theartwork in the naturalism category represents a form of vagueillustration of ideas, and engages the art of carving information onshallow planes.

Laterin the 1200 AD, the church integrated laymen, and a market grew ofartists that created three-dimensional representations of thesymbolic acts associated with the liturgy. Within a short time, theartists diversified the theme of the message and craftsmen adopted arealistic approach to representing dialogue with costumes, a factualtheater experience, and scenery. The clergy and nobility created amarket for the artisans’ church-related merchandise that demandednaturalistic personification of the human emotions. For example, theCameoof the Virgin and Childis a Byzantium low-relief carving made during 1050-1100 AD on agatecameo and in the gold frame. Adrien Jean Maximilien Vachette is theartist who worked on the naturalistic artwork in Cameo, but Cauffrymade incisions on the golden frame in the 1800s which measures 7.7 by5.4 by 0.7 cm. The Byzantine artwork represents the naturalismconcept of representing heavenly concepts in ways accessible to humanthinking. For example, the Virgin raises her hands in a prayerfulpose, while there is a medallion showing Christ on her breast. Thelow-relief curve signified the message that God’s Word becomeincarnate in the Virgin from the beginning, and she carried anddelivered the appointed Child. Thus, Greek letters are inscribed onthe sides of her head to identify her heavenly position as Theotokos,which means the Mother of God.

TheEnthroned Virgin and Childis a wooden sculpture that was made in Meuse Valley, France between1210-20 AD. The sculpture represents the return to naturalism sincethe item symbolizes a Biblical experience from a humanistic point ofview. Measuring 123.2 by 51.4 by 48.3 cm, the oak sculpture shows theVirgin Mary trampling on the schemer, which signifies the dramaticmoment when Eve defeats the serpent. While Eve was tempted by theserpent in the Book of Genesis 3:15, the Virgin Mary defeats theenemy of Christians. The sculpture expresses a critical Christianconcept of the triumph of the Virgin and the Child over Satan as thetempter. Therefore, the theological concept of the war between goodand evil in Christianity is depicted from a 3-dimensional approach.The Virgin is crowned as the Queen and the child as the King over theevil serpent. While the Virgin is sitting on a throne with her legsresting on a footstool, Christ is relaxing on the left lap. The Childis raising the right hand with a salute and the left-hand rests onhis left lap holding a sphere representing the world. Moreover, theVirgin is wearing a capacious robe that covers the entire throne toher feet and vestments. The naturalistic sculpture represents theconcept of the Virgin Mary being borne without the first sin. Thus,the Child is born without the effects of the serpent’s lie thatmade Adam and Eve commit the first sin. The Child represents thesuccess of the Immaculate Conception that gave rise to an exceptionKing with natural capacities above Satan. The 12thcentury marked a revival of theological cults that appreciated therole of the Virgin to personify the intercessors. Christ’s handheld up in benediction signifies to the worshippers the acceptance oftheir prayers. Similarly, the fact that Christ is carrying the worldon his left-hand asserts the complete victory over the evil dragonthat the Virgin is trampling below her feet. The crown she wearsrepresents her portion of the Trinity as the Queen of Heaven. Theconcept is a correlation between Jesus’ sufferings during thepassion and the compassion the Virgin’s soul bore during the time.The sculpture celebrates the humanistic gesture associated with theVirgin’s action of attending to the Child motherly and warmly.

Inconclusion, the Cameoof the Virgin and Child isa low-relief carving from the early medieval era when artists usedsupernaturalism theory to represent Christian ideas. The naturalisticartwork embodies the Virgin, but her breast bears the image ofChrist, which alludes to the spiritual birth of Jesus. Contrastingly,EnthronedVirgin and Childis a stereotypical 3-dimensional carving that bears the nature andresemblance of a woman holding her son. The theory of naturalism isexplored in the sculpture to ascertain the humanistic feeling of lovesince the Virgin intercedes for every worshipper. Thus, a human beingwas made a Heavenly Queen, and her Child is crowned the King over theevil serpent.


Vachette,Adrien Jean Maximilien. Cameo of the Virgin and Child.1050-1100 AD, Agate Cameo, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Accessed 25Sept. 2016.

EnthronedVirgin and Child. 1210-1220 AD, Oak Wood, The Metropolitan Museumof Art, New York. Accessed 25Sept. 2016.

Melville,Sarah Silberbergy. “Naturalism and Supernaturalism in AncientMesoamerica: An Analysis of Olmec Iconography.” University ofMontana, Paper 2498, 2014.

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Evaluationof a Website

HillaryClinton’s website contains several details about her past works andachievements such as Hillary’s fight for children. It futherexplains how she has changed the children’s lives to be better. Theaim of this text is to analyze the persuasive effective of thewebsite to the voters. The website contains some ambitious campaignmanifesto such as Hillary’s plan to reduce the cost of collegeeducation. It also compares Hillary Clinton against her opponentDonald Trump by analyzing their economic policies side by side.

Thewebsite is designed to advocate for Hillary’s presidential race. Itcontains many convincing reasons for the suitability of HillaryClinton to serve the nation as the president. The site contains thedetails about some of Hillary’s partners such as Tim Kaine, who isher vice president. It provides more details about Tim and what theelectorate need to know about him.

Thewebsite contains details about Clinton`s past life including hermarriage life with the former American President Bill Clinton and hasseveral photos of her past life.

Cleary,the website, developed for Hilary Clinton’s campaign is adequatefor convincing the citizens to elect her for the presidential seat.

Themost captivating feature of the site is its apparent characteristics.Use of large fonts makes it easy for anyone to visualize the contentadequately while the pictures used captivate the attention of theviewer. The site uses photos taken at public functions such as theone of Clinton and Tim another photo resembles a meme and is used tocompare Clinton and her competitor. The vintage picture taken ofHillary Clinton shows her humble life, and that she is a typicalcitizen living, just like any other person. This picture has aparticular persuasive effect on the electorate as they can identifywith her character.

Hillaryis portrayed as a person of good character through the detail on herfight for the children. Putting an effort for the young onesindicates that Clinton cares about the future of the countrygenerations, which qualify her for the presidential race. The collegeplan proves that Hillary would empower the citizens to build theirskills and lower the difficulty of acquiring the education.

Thiswebsite contains a registration menu that allows the prospectcitizens can participate in the campaign. It is known that peoplerespond better to those events and situations they feel involved(Andersonand Karrin, 123).Therefore the site increases the potential of fetching more and moresupporters for the candidate. The website highlights the goal andmission of the campaign in bold Jointhe official campaign-and help stop Donald Trump!This post directs the supporters’ minds towards one directiondefeating Donald Trump. The website is well organized, and all thecomponents are clear and easily locatable. These aspects make thesite less complex and anyone can use it easily. Use of clear languageinfluences the attitudes and opinions of those who visit the sitewhile the voters can identify the website and the details it containswith Hillary Clinton.

Thesite also provides a contact with the candidate, which is essentialfor receiving feedback from the electorate. Hence the candidate canknow the prevailing conditions among her supporters. Other easilylocatable menus on the website provide the opportunity for furtheractivities of the electorates in the site. This website has therhetoric effectiveness of attracting a huge number of supporters forHillary Clinton’s presidential bid.


Anderson,Karrin Vasby. &quotHillary Clinton in the News: Gender andAuthenticity in American Politics by Shawn J. Parry-Giles(review).&quot&nbspRhetoric&amp Public Affairs&nbsp19.1(2016): 122-125.

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Schoolboard meeting

Iattended the Islip board of education meeting on the twelfth ofSeptember year 2016. The meeting commenced at 7.30 in the evening.Several issues addressed in this session included the welcoming backof Dr. Koening. The board members discussed the previous payments forDr. Koening and evaluated his salary before enrolling in theinstitution and after he served the school. Further discussionsensued about Dr. Koening’s New York pentation. The meeting wouldhave been a perfect opportunity to introduce the candidates and thenewly elected members of the community. However, that never occurredas the school did not fund the candidates.

Themeeting ensued with discussions about the tax expire (IDA). Anothermatter addressed at the meeting concerned the disciplinary actionthat was necessary to maintain an exemplary code of conduct in theinstitution. The Treasury went ahead to present their financialreport followed by the attendance report on the board package.According to the report, the student`s enrollment increased by 242. Aquery was made on the reason for such a high increase. Theexplanation was that there were about 40 super seniors and studentsenrolling throughout all the grade levels, therefore, causing such asignificant difference. The 5-k class enrolled about 39 students, thesixth up to eighth grade increased with 39 pupils, while the ninth totenth grades increased their enrollment with up to 164 students. Themeeting proceeded with discussions about the current transportationsystems, and the conclusion was that the modes of transportation usedby the school need upgrading. The board members discussed someconferences they attended and about the refit and meeting in Buffalo.There were further discussions on matters concerning finance.

Severalpeople had attended the meeting. Those members of the Islip board ofeducation committee present were Norman A Wagner, the presidentMichelle Harriott, the vice president Christopher Brown, who is theassistant superintendent Mr. Howard M. Koening, the director. Otherpeople who attended the meeting include the district clerk, Mr.Denise Ridgeway Fred Philips, member Daniel Devine, member EdnaCarbajal, member Glenn Mitchell, member. Present in the meeting werevarious members of the community and other stakeholders related toCentral Islip.

Amongthose who presented were Norman A Wagner, Howard M. Koening, DanielDevine and Glenn Mitchell. I learned an invaluable lesson that properadministration and record keeping techniques could lead to increasedinstitutional efficiency. There is the need to apply standardprocedures when conducting several activities such as reporting ofbudgetary reports to make them comprehensible to all the individuals.Other methods include the observation of protocols such as consultingthe relevant authorities or senior staff to get the approval ofvarious operations. The meeting was well organized, and issues, aswell as questions, were raised in a professional and organizedmanner.

Thefirst lesson from the board meeting that I would apply in my teachingpractice is that of organizational techniques. I would need to planmy activities as well as those of my students to increase thepotential of learning and enhance participation. I would consult therelevant personnel or authority whenever I am faced with a difficultsituation to ensure that I do not go against the institutionalprinciples and protocols. It is also important to emulate the elementof keeping proper records so that one can assess their performanceagainst specific goals.